MEADVILLE — Early detection of cancer greatly increases a person’s odds of surviving this potentially deadly disease. Screening can range from relatively simple self-examinations to more complicated procedures conducted by physicians. The following are the widely accepted screening guidelines, courtesy of the American Cancer Society.
Women should begin self-examinations of their breasts starting in their 20s. This helps women familiarize themselves with their breasts early on, which makes it easier to detect any abnormalities, including lumps, later in life.
In addition to breast self-exams, women should receive clinical breast exams, or CBEs, every three years while in their 20s and 30s, and then an annual CBE starting at age 40. The ACS also recommends women begin receiving annual mammograms starting at age 40. Some doctors may also recommend women with a family history of breast cancer or other significant risk factors receive an MRI in addition to a mammogram. These additional tests are rarely necessary, but women at a higher risk of breast cancer should discuss their options with their physicians.
Colorectal cancer and polyps
Men and women should begin screening for colorectal cancer and polyps beginning at age 50. Polyps are growths on the inner surface of the colon that are often noncancerous, but some can develop into cancer.
Some tests may be conducted to find both polyps and cancer, and these tests should be conducted at various intervals. Beginning at age 50, men and women should get a flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, a colonoscopy every 10 years, a double-contrast barium enema every five years, or a CT colonography, also known as a virtual colonoscopy, every five years. When tests other than a colonoscopy are positive, then a colonoscopy should be conducted as well.
Testing can also be conducted to detect colorectal cancer. Beginning at age 50, men and women should receive an annual fecal occult blood test or a yearly fecal immunochemical test. When results are positive, a colonoscopy should be conducted.